Who was Charles X?
French king who was overthrown because he tore up the constitution and suspended the legislature
What is a radical?
Someone who favors extreme change
The overthrow of Charles X by French radicals, who set up a constitutional monarchy led by Louis Philippe
Man who became monarchy following the July Revolution, nicknamed the citizen king because he owed his throne to the people
What were the effects of the July Revolution on the rest of Europe?
It inspired revolts in Belgium and Poland
What happened during the Belgian revolt?
The Belgians resented sharing a state with the Dutch and gained their independence with the support of Britain and France
What happened during the Polish revolt?
Poles revolted in an attempt to gain their independence but were brutally crushed by Russia
What is a recession?
A period of reduced economic activity
Why did discontent begin to grow in France in 1848?
A recession, poor harvests, dissatisfaction with King Philppe’s government
What were the “February Days”?
A period in February 1848 when revolutionaries barricaded the streets of Paris, King Philppe abdicated and a group of liberal, radical and socialist leaders proclaimed the Second Republic
What were the “June Days”?
A revolt by the working class against the revolutionary government in June 1848. The rebellion was violently suppressed, causing deep distrust between the middle class, working class and socialists
Who was Napoleon III?
Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew and Emperor of France
Who was Louis Kossuth?
A Hungarian nationalist who demanded an independent government
What happened during the revolts in Italy?
Revolutionaries exiled the pope from Rome and set up independent republics. However, Austria and France eventually restored the old order
What was the Frankfurt Assembly?
A meeting of delegates from the German states where they offered Frederick William IV control over a united Germany. He refused
Why did most of the revolutions fail?
Use of military force by states, revolutionaries didn’t have mass support, constitutions that supported their principles were withdrawn or replaced.